Milestones

Milestones

Research and advancement of graphology has a long and inspiring history. Milestones mentions only a very few names. To include a comprehensive list would take up many pages.

11th Century China

The Chinese are said to have observed the relationship between handwriting and personality as early as the 11th Century.

16th Century Europe

In Italy the first known book on western graphology was written by Camillo Baldi in 1622 entitled Trattato come di una lettera missiva si conoscano la natura e qualità dello scrittore.

The 19th Century and Beyond

In France a school for the interpretation of signs in handwriting was founded by Abbé Flandrin in 1830. This was followed by the opening of the Société Française de Graphology in Paris by Abbé Jean-Hippolyte Michon (1806-81) which is active even today. After his death, Michon’s work was carried on by his pupil, Jean Crépieux –Jamin (1858-1940). It is he who was responsible for the re-grouping of handwriting signs that are currently in use today.

In Germany Dr.Ludwig Klages (1872-1956) founded the German Graphological Society. He based his research on polarity: Apollo and Dionysos; positive and negative; soul and spirit. He sought to interpret rhythm, harmony, spontaneity and other qualities in handwriting and classed then under the heading Form Level. William Thierry Preyer proposed that handwriting was brain writing and that the instrument was of less importance than the brain impulse, which directed the movement.

In Switzerland, at about the same time, Max Pulver (1890-1953) introduced the concept of symbolism of space through the vertical and horizontal direction of the handwriting and the pressure applied. Ania Teillard, a student of Carl Jung, applied Jung’s four main functions: thinking, intuition, sensation and sentiment, to graphology.

In Czechoslavakia, Robert Saudek (1881-1935) reduced his research findings on speed and signs of dishonesty into books, Experiments with Handwriting and Psychology of Handwriting, which remain classics to this day.

The United States of America, Israel and the United Kingdom had an influx of graphologists from Europe during the inter-war years and thereafter; they included Nadya Olyanova, Karen Amend, Marie Bernard, Klara Roman, and Thea Stein Lewinson.

Present Day

In the United Kingdom, more recently, Renna Nezos founded the British Academy of Graphology and the London College of Graphology (1985).